Talking of cheese
This French word is used to refer to the maturation of cheeses.
There arethree main stages: young (or fresh) cheeses, semi-mature cheeses andaged cheeses (ones which have reached optimal maturity).
It goes withoutsaying that each of these stages takes place at different intervals of time,depending on the type and size of the cheese in question.
- Dairy cheese
A cheese made from milk fromseveral different herds and produced by a farming cooperative or a company.
- Farm cheese
These cheeses are made on an artisanal basis. They’re based on unpasteurised milk obtained from one herd only and are madeat the producer’s farm.
The Latin word forma gave rise to the word formaticum, literally ‘that whichis made in a mould’. This gave rise to the medieval French word formage,which then became fromage, the modern French word for cheese. Certainregional cheeses are known as fourmes, while the Italian world formaggioshares the same origins too.
- Heat-treated milk
Milk heated to a temperature between 40°C and 72°C for at least 15 seconds.
- Pasteurised milk
Milk heated to a temperature of at least 72°C for 15 seconds.
Everything that appears within the rind of the cheese.
It could be hardcheese, cooked cheese, soft cheese, creamy cheese or blue cheese.
- Raw milk
Milk that isn’t heated beyond 40°C.
All cheeses have a rind. When it comes to soft cheeses, the followingclassification can be used :
- Natural rind: a rind that hasn’t been washedand has no mould.
- Rinds with mould : cheeses whose rinds develop a downylayer of Penicillin-type mould.
- Washed rind : as the cheese ages, it is washeda number of times in salty water or with wine or another kind of alcohol.This produces a spongy, damp rind as well as aromas, which are often quitepronounced.
This uniquely French term is used for both wines and cheeses, as well asother agricultural produce.
It’s a term that encompasses the geology of anygiven region, but can also be used to refer to a given area of agriculturalproduction, or even the specific conditions pertaining to the sum totalconditions which affect any one producer or region.
Terroir determines thetaste and typicity of a particular agricultural product, and is linked to thenotion of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)